Autumn-2015

Social and Cultural Impact Assessment of Urban Ornamentation and Elimination of Excess Visual Features at the Intersection between Enghelab Square and Vali-e Asr Crossing

Dr. Mohammad Reza Chit Saz
(Avan Research Company)

 

Abstract: According to the 2014-2018 enactment of the 5-year operational plans for Tehran Municipality, Tehran Beautification Organization is obliged to beautify and remove excess visual features at three case regions of: Naserkhosro Street (historical), Tajrish Square (commercial), and Enghelab Street (cultural). If successful, similar procedures are to be carried out at other regions in Tehran. The “Urban Ornamentation and Elimination of Excess Visual Features at the Intersection between Enghelab Square and Vali-e Asr Crossing” project was launched in August 2014, and is currently (September 2015) in operation. 41 practical propositions were offered to corresponding executive bodies and beneficiaries based on the results of social and cultural impact assessment (SCIA) of the proposed project. The estimated amount of time required for the implementation of these propositions is 280 days (9 months and 10 days). Separate implementation of the propositions from the project itself would lead to a total financial loss of 10,118,112,00 Tomans, equivalent to a 29% devaluation of project investments. However, the simultaneous implementation of the propositions along with the project would lead to an added 10,650,638,000 Tomans worth of budget, equivalent to a 27.7% increase in added value.
Keywords: beatification organization, Enghelab Street, urban ornamentation, elimination of excess visual features, social and cultural impact assessment (SCIA), social impact assessment (SIA)

1. Introduction
1-1. Problem statement: Things being what they are, the majority of roadways in the country, particularly those of bigger cities such as Tehran, seem to induce a sense of confusion and chaos among the civilians as opposed to a sense of peace. Unattractive and rather messy building facades, worn-out, uncoordinated, and unusually faulty roadside attractions and billboards and other space-related elements as well as a bundle of asynchronous buildings, traffic and horizontal disarrays in space, uneven skyline, inappropriate graffiti, unsuitable urban furniture and vegetation, and low quality and incoordination of colors used on walls and floors of the city are all among the visual deficits or visual pollutions of the city (High Council of Urbanism and Related Affairs, 2008:1-5; Salehi, 2007:85-88; Bahreini, 1998: 243, Luscher, 1990: 126). Along these lines, Tehran Municipality has proposed its second 5-year operational plan encompassing various issues amongst which are propositions for the visual improvement of the urban environment including prioritizing ornamentation over beautification, promoting and beautifying urban expression through visual discipline and enhancement of urban identities (2014-2018 enactment of the 5-year Operational Plan of Tehran Municipality). On this account, Tehran Beautification Organization has been appointed to undertake the beautification of Naserkhosro Street (historical), Tajrish Square (commercial), and Enghelab Street (cultural) as case studies. If successful, the organization will be assigned to carry out further beautification projects at other regions of Tehran (2014-2018 enactment of the 5-year Operational Plan of Tehran Municipality). “Urban Ornamentation and Elimination of Excess Visual Features at the Intersection between Enghelab Square and Vali-e Asr Crossing” project was launched in August 2014, and is currently (September 2015) in operation. Other topics including violation of citizens’ public rights due to illegal protrusion of advertisement billboards in sidewalks and other urban spaces have also been considered in this project in addition to urban ornamentation. On the one hand, what matters most from the perspective of social and cultural impact assessment (SCIA), is the manner by which the study area has changed throughout the course of decades as well as other subjective issues which have led to its current state of disarray. On the other hand, the direct/indirect impacts as well as accumulative effects of intervention and its accompanied material and immaterial costs and benefits are highly significant. The following is the social and cultural impact assessment (SCIA) study of the mentioned project.
1-2. Fundamental questions: the study area is considered of the most significant and cultural, albeit overcrowded regions of the capital of Iran. Thus, questions rise as to what factors have led urban management experts to select this region as the starting point for urban ornamentation? While such and even more indeterminate projects are commonly carried out in regions wherein the potential negative consequences of the project (if they were to occur) could be compensated for in a much faster way and with extremely lower costs and the project could be terminated in due time. Other relevant questions that may rise in this regard include:

o What are the positive and negative social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of the project, both short-term and long-term, on the city as well as citizens, residents, local employees and urban management if the project were to be discontinued? And how intense are they?
o What are the short-term and long-term positive and negative consequences of the project for the city and citizens, residents, local employees and urban management in the case of a successful implementation of the project? And how intense are they?
o Given the gravity of more extreme pollutions such as air and noise pollution, does visual pollution hold priority over the others that interventions are being made in its regard?
o How relevant is visual pollution to other topics such as social dilemmas, cultural and intergenerational gaps, and economic inequalities? And to what extent is the former the result of the latter?
o Do the potential negative effects of the project outweigh its positive effects? How? To what extent?
o How would the managers, designers, supporters, and executives of the project react if the SIA studies propose the discontinuation of the project?
o How are the various phases of the project defined regarding duration, amount and methods of interventions?
o To what extent are the primary beneficiaries and local business owners free to select and participate or oppositely, reject and refuse to participate in the interventions?
o What theoretical and practical strategies can be applied for the qualitative and quantitative enhancement of the project?
o What do experts of urban furniture and perspective have to say about the preferred elements for urban ornamentation and elimination of excess visual features at the intersection between Enghelab-Square and Vali-e Asr crossing?
o Are the local citizens, residents, and business owners aware of the project? To what extent and how?
o What is the opinion of local citizens, pedestrians and drivers, residents, business owners, and employees about the objectives and aspects of implementing the project?
o To what extent will citizens and residents be allowed to participate in the project’s implementation?
o What are the suitable practical and executive strategies for maximizing public participation? What are the positive effects of implementing the project?
o What are some scientific and empirical strategies for resolving or reducing the negative and unanticipated effects of the project alongside its positive effects and plans for extending these effects?
o What are the social, economic, cultural, and urban features of the study area?
o Have the preliminary scientific proceedings been carried out appropriately?
o How fit is the project’s executive management team regarding adequate scientific and empirical potency (experiences and specialties), logistics, credit, time, and knowledge of using inter-organizational and outsourcing capacities?
o Why hasn’t the projects management and execution been assigned to the Deputy of Technical and Urban Projects of the organization, given that according to structural hierarchy, such projects fall with the jurisdiction of this deputy, which has the required scientific potency?
o Have the beneficiaries of the project, Municipality Offices of the 6th and 11th District of Tehran, taken preparatory measures? Do they have the required training?

1
1-3. Significance: elimination of excess visual features and urban ornamentation have become an essential task in many regions of Tehran, given the city’s unsuitable state of visual pollution, especially considering its long-term effects on citizens’ mental well-being. However, such endeavors would undoubtedly be accompanied by certain effects characterized by both qualitative and quantitative aspects with further direct or indirect implications. This would require numerous investigations by SIA experts, extending to outside the scope of technical aspects of a city and civil engineering. Creating an urban environment devoid of any unattractive visual deformities (visual pollution) is not only reliant on the implementation of large-scale projects, aiming at monitoring urban architecture and urban advertisements as well as decreasing or eliminating excess visual elements in the city, but also public training and education for civilians. If civilians were to for any reason refuse or not be able to participate in the implementation of the project, the project would fail to proceed or in the best-case scenario would reach minimum results (Esmaeili, 2013: 92-93; Terensink, 2007:225). Owing to the impact of a SIA study on the social living of the people in the study regions, 18 factors have been considered for this study as listed in table 2. The project can have three levels of impact for each of the 18th listed criteria including: high, moderate, and low. Documentation analysis, field surveys and adaptive analysis will be conducted for each of the 18th indicators and values will be assigned accordingly, wherein values between 13-18 indicate high impact, 7-12 indicate moderate impact, and 1-6 show low impact. Upon assigning values to each indicator, technical coefficients will also be allocated to each indicator followed by a final sum over all values to determine whether an SIA study is required or not. SIA rating will also be carried out at four levels of comprehensive, moderate, limited, and small (Hooveit 2000:257-294; Braunch, 2000: 913-126; Faezeli, 2010: 103-111). Following the assignment of scores for each indicator and summing over all scores, a total value of 197 was obtained, which divided by the 17 included indicators came to an average score of 11.58. The difference between the total value obtained (197) and the corresponding maximum and middle values (306 and 153, respectively) was -109 and +44, respectively. The obtained figures recommend the implementation of an SIA study (Mohajeri, 2014: 23-26; Fazeli, 2010: 133-143).

SIA needs assessment and SIA rating
Type of Activity Traffic load Welfare Social and military security Local and cultural identity Employment and living Urban landscapes Familial relations Social conflicts Social infrastructures Population and demographics Social media Hierarchy of power Leisure and recreation Economic and social inequalities Social damages Prices of real-estate, services and goods Cultural heritage Special consequences Total Score
Score 13 14 13 12 11 17 7 12 9 9 13 8 12 7 12 15 13 - 197

1-4. Objectives: In a bulletin by the beautification organization titled: “Ornamentation and conciliation of Enghelab Street” (Tehran Beautification Organization, 2014: bulletin), the organization announced its mission to eliminate visual pollution and beautify urban landscapes and walls as well as organize billboards, with an emphasis on the cultural and historical identity of Enghelab Street. The proposed policies and proceedings according to the bulletin were:
 Emphasis on cultural and art-led assessment and intendance of an Islamic revolution identity
 Prioritizing pedestrians over drivers
 Establishing visual order
 Creating visual attractions and utilizing urban furniture and art
The executives of the project announced 6 plans as follows:
 Elimination of excess visual features and urban ornamentation
 Organizing business boards and billboards
 Lavation and cleaning of facades
 Emphasis on the façade to University of Tehran
 Redesigning the symbol of Enghelab Square
 Redesigning and accumulating urban extensions and installations (Tehran Beautification Organization, bulletin, 2014: 7)

However, another objective of the study, from an SIA perspective, is to identify, investigate and categorize various social and cultural impacts of the project as well as to propose scientific and empirical solutions for resolving or reducing the negative and unanticipated effects of the project, alongside the expansion of its positive aspects. Accordingly, the secondary objectives of the study include:
o Identification of the social, public, economic, cultural, historical, and urban features of the study region
o Identification, categorization, and analysis of public opinions and comments by civilians, residents, business owners, pedestrians, and drivers regarding the various objectives and aspects of interventions.
o Thorough analysis of opinions by experts of urban affairs regarding urban ornamentation and elimination of excess visual features in the study region.
o Proposal of suitable strategies for maximum attraction of public participation as well as outsourcing towards improving project implementation.
1-5. Interventionist actions: the project was initially launched by the Deputy of Technical Affairs of Tehran Beautification Organization, but was for certain reasons including the high number of projects assigned to the deputy, delegated to the Deputy of Advertisement and Revenue of the said organization. According to the executives, the main proceedings of this project include the organization of facades and billboards as well as elimination of excess visual features. However, since no specific checklists were procured for this objective, the excess visual features will be identified and eliminated based on previous experiences and generic studies. The scientific background proposed by the executives and managers of the study were not ratified in the eyes of the SIA experts, who stated that the project lacked any scientific background studies. The intervention zone is comprised of a long and narrow body running west-to-east at the intersection between Enghelab Square and Vali-e Asr crossing, extending to the southern and northern sectors of Enghelab Street. The northern sector falls within the 1st, 2nd, and 6th Districts of Tehran (Enghelab Street, University of Tehran, Nosrat), while the southern sector is within the 1st, 3rd, and 11th Districts of Tehran (Sheykh Bahayi Street, Felestin Street, Jamalzadeh Street).

Location of intersection zone
2. Description of Intervening actions
2-1. Community (fundamental conditions in T0)
Overview of basics: the intervention area, with over 1 million bystanders and visitors throughout the day, is one of the most important locations of the city as well as the crossing center of many overcrowded roadways. At the same time, this location is also considered one of the most cultural regions of Tehran, visited by many university professors, authors, and students on a daily basis (Tarh and Memari Consulting Engineers Company, 2013, Vol. 3: 217-226; Nazar Research Center 2011, Vol. 1: 70-120, Vol. 2: 74-105; Tehran Beautification Organization, Bulletin, 2014: 1-8). The trans-regional quality of the project becomes obvious considering that the northern sector of the intervention area falls within the 6th District of Tehran and the southern sector in the 11th District. On the other hand, Enghelab Street, is one of the largest streets in Tehran located at the city’s center and in line with Azadi Street. From the west, the intervention zone extends from Enghelab Square all the way to Azadi Square, while from the east it extends from Vali-e Asr crossing to Imam Hossein Square. The zone is also connected to Karim Khan Zand Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Fatemi Street, Amir Abad Shomali and Vali-e Asr Square, Vanak Square, and Tajrish from the north as well as to Jomhouri Street, Imam Khomeini Square, Bazaar and Rah Ahan Square from the south. The dominant function (land-use) of Enghelab Street, especially the study zone, is scientific, cultural, educational and commercial. The presence of University of Tehran, as the largest and oldest Center for Higher Education in the country, and vicinity to Amir Kabir University (Tehran Polytechnic), Architecture and Art University, Islamic Azad University, Giv House (culture, art and architecture research center), Tehran Book House, Office of the National Library of Iran, as well as the presence of the majority of book publishers, bookshops, education centers and famous arts and science centers of the country , are among the main features of the area. The presence of 4 cinemas including Central, Bahman, Pars, and Sepideh Cinemas as well as the renowned City Theater, known as the most visited theater hall in the country, and the renowned Academic Molavi Theater and other art-related institutes have all led to the boldness and significance of the study area in regards to arts and culture. Among other features of the study area include the presence of office buildings and other organizations such as Literacy Movement Organization, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (Giv Building), Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (International Exhibition Hall for the Press and Publications Department of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance), Friday Prayers Headquarters, several banks, gas stations, and stores for school supplies, office supplies, engineering supplies, dormitories and other related buildings. Two bus routes also run through the study area including the west-east Azadi-Tehranpars bus route which runs through the center of the region and the north-south Tajrish-Rah Ahan bus route located at the eastern sector of the study region. Other bus and taxi routes also run through the area as well as the 2 metro stations, highlighting the high rate of traffic and crowdedness of the area. The area is also characterized by a change in nomenclature of the square from 24th of Esfand to Enghelab Square and the street from Shahreza to Enghelab Street after the Islamic Revolution of Iran. During the last decades, the area has been subject to a variety of political, social, and revolutional movements.

State of traffic and width of sidewalks in the intervention zone: the intervention zone has been divided into 8 sectors.

Values were assigned for each of the elements in the sidewalks based on three factors of traffic conditions, width of sidewalks, and access to adequate space for pedestrian. The values ranged from 1 to 5, with 5 indicating highly appropriate, 4 as appropriate, 3 showing moderately appropriate, 2 indicating inappropriate and 1 indicating highly inappropriate.
جدول وضعيت تردد و چگونگي عرض پياده‌روهاي در حوزه مداخله
Traffic conditions and width of sidewalks in the intervention zone for different elements
Sector Element From ... to ... Status Evaluation (1-5)
Northern N1 Jamalzadeh to North Kargar Inappropriate 2
N2 North Kargar to 16th Azar Inappropriate 2
N3 1th Azar to Ghods Highly inappropriate 5
N4 Ghods to Vesal Appropriate 4
N5 Vesal to Felestin Moderately appropriate 3
N6 Felestin to Vali-e Asr Inappropriate 2
Southern S1 Jamalzadeh to South Kargar Inappropriate 2
S2 South Kargar to Fakhr Razi Highly inappropriate 1
S3 Fakhr Razi to Daneshgah Street Inappropriate 2
S4 Daneshgah Street to Vesal Moderately appropriate 3
S5 Vesal to Felestin Moderately appropriate 3
S6 Felestin to Vali-e Asr Moderately appropriate 3

Bus stops in the intervention zone: The 3 bus stations are located in the E sector, the most crowded of the sidewalks, contribute to the visual pollution of the zone towards the southern edge of Enghelab Street. Each station has occupied about 4 m2 of the sidewalk area and if transferred to another location would add 8m2 worth of area (one station for every 2 routes) to the sidewalk.
Illegal parking of motorcycles in sidewalks of the intervention zone: Perhaps the most superficial feature of visual excessiveness and pollution which contributes to highest most amount of disarray in the area is the illegal parking of motorcycles in sidewalks. This phenomena has spread frequently during the last decade such that instead of being seen as an illegal action, is realized as a legal right.

State and number of motorcycles parked illegally in the northern and southern sidewalks of the intervention zone
Sector Element From ... to ... Status Number of parked motorcycles
Northern N1 Jamalzadeh to North Kargar street Highly inappropriate 67
N2 North Kargar St to 16th Azar Highly inappropriate 23
N3 16th Azar to Ghods Highly appropriate 0
N4 Ghods to Vesal Inappropriate 9
N5 Vesal to Felestin Appropriate 2
N6 Felestin to Vali-e Asr Highly inappropriate 14 + 2 bicycles
Southern S1 Jamalzadeh to South Kargar Highly inappropriate 40 + 1 bicycle
S2 South Kargar to Fakhr Razi Highly inappropriate 61
S3 Fakhr Razi to Daneshgah St Inappropriate 32
S4 Daneshgah St to Felestin Moderately appropriate 17 + 2 bicycles
S5 Vesal to Felestin Moderately appropriate 39
S6 Felestin to Vali-e Asr Moderately appropriate 15 + 1 bicycle

Number and percentage of shops in the intervention zone: a total of 380 shops are distributed throughout 8 sectors of the intervention zone as so: northern sidewalks with 106 shops contributing to 28% (sector A = 64 shops, 17%; sector B = 0 (University of Tehran); sector C = 28 shops, 7%; and sector D = 14 shops, 4%) and southern sidewalks with 274 shops contributing to 72% of the entire number of shops (sector E = 138 shops, 38%; sector F = 74 shops, 20%; sector G = 38 shops, 10%; and sector H = 24 shops, 6%). Thus the number of shops in the southern sidewalks are approximately 2.5 times the number of shops in the northern sidewalks, while the number of shops in the western sidewalks are 2.7 times the number of shops in the eastern sidewalks. Sector A and E, situated in front of each other, had the highest number of shops per unit area.
2-2. Historical process (defining T-1): the intervention zone has been witness to 5 main historical periods including: reign of the Qajar Dynasty (1525-1922), the Pahlavi Dynasty from 1925-1945 during the reign of the Reza Shah, the first reign of Moammad Reza Pahlavi (1945-1965), second reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1945-1962), Islamic revolution (1962-now).
Progress of visual pollution in the intervention zone: the following table gives a summary of influential factors in visual pollution along with codes and quantities (coefficients) indicating the type and impact of each factor (Tehran Municipality Almanacs; websites of ministries and organizations affiliated with Tehran Municipality).

Influential factors of increased visual pollution along with accompanied codes and values (coefficients)
Value (coefficient) Code Influential factors of increased visual pollution Row
1 11 Establishing bookshops, school supplies stores, etc. 1
2 12 Establishing large educational centers and small universities/colleges 2
3 13 Establishment of large universities/colleges 3
2 14 Establishing cinemas and theaters 4
1 15 Every 1000 bus count 5
3 16 Rapid transit bus 6
2 17 Relevant urban study projects (indirect) 7
3 18 Relevant urban study projects (direct) 8
3 19 Relevant approved acts (indirect) 9
4 20 Relevant approved acts (direct) 10
4 21 Establishing metro stations 11
4 22 Introducing pedestrian police 12

According to the archived resources (almanacs, periodical reports, historical photos, and field studies) the intervention zone can be divided into 10 ten-year periods. The corresponding pollution codes, number of pollutants, sum of values of influential factors, and estimated percentage of visual pollution are as follows:

Amount and percentage of visual pollution in the intervention zone for 10 ten-year periods
Estimated percentage of pollution Sum of values of influential factors of visual pollution for the intervention zone Pollution code (number of pollutants) Ten-year period Row
0 1 11 (1) ?-1925 1
1 2 12 (1) 1925-1935 2
1 4 11 (1), 13(1) 1935-1945 3
1 4 11 (1), 13(1) 1945-1955 4
4 14 11(3), 13(1), 14(3), 15(2) 1955-1965 5
6 28 11(9), 13(1), 14(5), 15(3), 19(1) 1965-1975 6
8 46 11(22), 12(2), 13(1), 14(5), 15(7), 22(1) 1975-1985 7
13 74 11(35), 12(7), 13(1), 14(5), 15(8), 20(1) 1985-1995 8
31 143 11(47), 12(9), 13(1), 14(5), 15(9), 17(16), 18(4), 19(4) 1995-2005 9
35 222 11(63) , 12(11), 13(1), 14(5), 15(9), 16(2), 17(31), 18(6), 19(5), 20(2), 21(1) 2005-2015 10

ميز

Percentage of growth in visual pollution (10-year periods) Amount of growth in visual pollution (10-year periods)

It is evident that only about 13% of visual pollutions were the result of activities of the first 6 ten-year periods (from ? to 1975), whereas 21% of visual pollutions occurred during the next 2 ten-year periods (1975-1995) and 31 and 35 percent of visual pollutions took place in the next 2 ten-year periods from 1995 to 2005 and from 2005-2015, respectively.

Identifying two main periods of growth in visual pollution (ten-year periods)

2-3. Previous empirical studies: amid studies conducted in this scope is the work by Nazar research center in 2014 titled “Enghelab Square Quality Improvement Project”, published in 4 volumes. This is the first instance of an intervention-based study about the study region, which albeit limited to only the western sectors of Enghelab square, has proposed various practical and scientific solutions. Later on, Amir Masood Anousfar and Maryam Sabzevari in collaboration with Terhan Beautification Organization published a book titled “elimination of excess visual features from urban facades” based on previous works and studies. The book is considered one of the first Persian books related to elimination of excess visual features in urban areas. Other studies by Tehran Beautification Organization include:
• Enghelab Square organization project, Amood Consulting Engineers Company, 1995, 3 volumes
• Organizing urban panels and billboards in Tehran, Naghsh Engineering Consulting Company, 1995, 10 volumes
• Designing a pedestrian underpass at Enghelab Square, Amood Consulting Engineers Company, 1996, 2 volumes
• Urban design of Enghelab Street, Parhas et al. Consulting Engineers Company, 1999, 26 volumes
• Conciliation and improvement of Enghelab Square, Raz Ahang Consulting Engineers Company, 2002, 3 volumes
• Environmental Advertising Criterion (Rules and Regulations of Environmental Advertising in Tehran), Isa Ghaffari Nejad, 2002, 4 volumes
• Environmental Advertisement Pathology in Tehran, Tehran Jahad-e Daneshgahi, 2006, 11 volumes
• Studies on Enghelab Square Quality Improvement Project, Nazar Consulting Engineers Research Center, 2011, 4 volumes
• Enghelab-Azadi Axis Quality Improvement Project, Tarh and Memari Consulting Engineers Company, 2013, 7 volumes
Despite the significance of the mentioned studies in their own respected fields, none seem to focus on the elimination of excess visual features from Enghelab Square to Vali-e Asr crossing.

3. Theoretical concepts
3-1. Macro approach: According to Burdge, SIA is defined as the regular analysis and prediction of potential outcomes of a proposed project or policy with respect to the lives of civilians and society. This concept was first introduced in 1970 as a field in social studies after the outbreak of numerous negative consequences of developmental proceedings. SIA focuses on public-participation in developmental procedures aiming to attain sustainable development (Fazeli and Pakseresht, 2009: 3). Sustainable development seeks to satisfy the current needs of society while bearing in mind the potential of future generations in satisfying their own needs (Golkar, 2008: 108). In the context of sustainable development, funding is not only seen from its economic perspective, but extends to civilians, social groups, the environment, culture and history as other sources of wealth. This highlights the importance of participation (Leftwich, 2006: 18-22; Mohajeri, 2014: 12-13, 17). Another issue which must be reflected on is structural discipline in urban environments as a means for apprehending urban aesthetics and readability, improving the benefits of urban spaces, increasing public satisfaction, and creating cohesion among visual structures of urban environments and landscapes (Colin, 1999: 90).

3-2. Theoretical/conceptual models: according to preliminary studies, implementation of the quality improvement project would on the one hand lead to lower rates of visual pollution, increased sense of belonging to space, the locality, and the city, economic prosperity, improved performance of transportation networks, increased public participation, changes in population patterns, reduced rate of unsuitable or temporary jobs, lower costs of supervision over public places by the municipality and the police force, increased salary of municipality-related occupations, higher salaries for beneficiaries and on the other hand would face an increase in traffic load and lack of adequate parking space. This however would be the case for when interventions are carried out according to plan and with respect to expert opinion as well as considering viewpoints of beneficiaries. However, if such considerations are neglected, the project would not only fail to produce positive outcomes, but would also bring about negative consequences and would inflict heavy damages upon the region, beneficiaries, civilians and urban management. Thus any and all intervening urban-related actions, particularly in regards to organization, must take into account the various involved human-based factors and requirements of users. Actions not taken in this accord are doomed to fail, for if citizens do not feel a sense of responsibility and belonging about a newly organized urban environment, the environment will shortly return to its previous state of visual pollution. However, as mentioned by Bentley, developments can become sustainable and successful provided that citizens are able to privatize their urban environment, especially through public participation in visual organization procedures.

3 parts of the conceptual model: social, economic, and cultural

4. Methodology

4-1. Research method and data: a combination of quantitative and qualitative tools was used to gather the required data.
Study objectives Methods and techniques
Identifying various features of the study area Library research/observation/ focus group
Identifying the visual status of the study region Observation/survey/ interview
Needs assessment for the implementation of the project Survey/interview
Assessment of users awareness of the project Survey
Identifying excess visual features of the study area Observation/survey/focus group/ interview
Identifying visual ornamentation strategies of the study region Survey/focus group/interview
Identifying those in agreement and those against the project Survey/focus group
Creating interaction among beneficiaries and executives Delphi/interview
Further notification of beneficiaries Delphi/interview
Estimating the effects of the project (without intervention/with intervention) Focus group/Delphi/interview
Identifying strategies for adjustment, compensation or prevention Focus group/interview/comparative study
Identifying strategies for attracting public participation Survey/focus group/interview
Identifying volunteers Survey
Methods and techniques used to gather data at various stages of the SIA project
4-2. Study population: according to the 2011 census, Tehran has a population of 8,293,140. The Cochran formula (Cochran, 1963: 75; Mirzayi, 2009, Vol. 1: 188) was used to sample 384 individuals from the initial population as so:
Population size (N=8293140) /q=0.5/ p=0.5/ d=0.05/ z=1.96
Sampling strategy: a classified sampling method was used proportional to study population. Accordingly, the study region was divided into 8 sub regions and population size was computed for each sub-region based on the number of business owners, residents, and pedestrians. Considering errors during interviews, a total of 400 questionnaires (384+16 added questionnaires) were completed.
4 sub-regions in the southern sector of Enghelab Street
Sub-region Number
Business owners Pedestrians Residents Total
From Jamalzadeh St to 12th Farvardin St E 70 10 5 85
From 12th Farvardin St to Daneshgah St F 30 20 5 55
From Danesgah St to Felestin St G 30 10 5 45
From Felestin St to the end of Daneshjoo Park H 10 50 5 65
Total 140 90 20 250

.
Preliminary studies: following the completion of initial questionnaires, 25 proto-type questionnaires were also filled. The results were analyzed and final drafts of the questionnaires were procured.
Validity and reliability: data from preliminary questionaries’ were analyzed and validated using SPSS software and reliability tests. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for all the questions (with the exception of field variables and open questions) was 0.85 and 0.94 for the visual desirability index. The figures indicate the reliability of the questionnaires. Validity of the questionnaires were also assessed using expert opinion.
Results of reliability tests
Cronbach’s Alpha Number of Items
All questions 0.85 79
Visual desirability index 0.945 53

5
5 – Results
5-1. Outcomes: all positive and negative outcomes and effects of the project were identified and categorized into 4 sections as so:
• Positive outcomes and effects of intervention and inconsideration of SIA
• Negative outcomes and effects of intervention and inconsideration of SIA
• Positive outcomes and effects of intervention and consideration of SIA
• Negative outcomes and effects of intervention and consideration of SIA
5-2. Estimation (T1): Final estimates (cost-benefit analysis of the project): using CBA in two states of:
Consideration of SIA, PL state
Inconsideration of SIA, WP state

Total project costs (in PL state)
Row Project cost estimates (in PL state) Amount in Tomans
1 Estimates of direct (initial) costs upon completion 16,690,176,000
2 Estimates of indirect (secondary) costs None
3 Estimates of hidden costs 16,888,200,000
4 Estimate sum of shared and auxiliary costs 521,000,000 + monthly cost of 2,676,000
5 Estimates of former costs 374,500,000
Total 34,473,876,000 + monthly cost of 2,676,000x120 = 34,794,996,000

Total project benefit (in PL state)
Row Project benefit estimates (in PL state) Amount in Tomans
1 Estimates of direct (initial) benefits 24,676,884,000
2 Estimates of indirect (secondary) benefits none
Total 24,676,884,000

Total project costs (in WP state)
Row Project cost estimates (in PL state) Amount in Tomans
1 Estimates of direct (initial) costs upon completion 16,690,176,000
2 Estimates of indirect (secondary) costs 1,865,250,000
3 Estimates of hidden costs 16,888,200,000
4 Estimate sum of shared and auxiliary costs 521,000,000 + monthly cost of 2,676,000
5 Estimates of former costs 374,500,000
Total 36,339,126,000 + monthly cost of 2,676,000x12 = 36,660,246,000

Total project benefits (in WP state)
Row Project benefit estimates (in PL state) Amount in Tomans
1 Estimates of direct (initial) benefits 24,676,884,000
2 Estimates of indirect (secondary) benefits 22,643,000,000
Total 47,310,884,000

• Project estimates in PL state (without SIA)
• Project costs = 34,794,996,000 Tomans
• Project benefits = 24,676,884,000
• Difference = -10,118,112,000 Tomans, equivalent to a 29% drop in value
• Project estimates in WP state (with SIA)
• Project costs = 36,660,246,000 Tomans
• Project benefits = 47,310,884,000 Tomans
• Difference = +10,650,638,000 Tomans, equivalent to 27.7% added value

6- Conclusion
6-1. Pragmatics (implementation)
Effective communication system: The prime objective of notifying, training and defining limits to information access of beneficiaries and other entities and organizations is to represent information according to an organized plan.
• Who? Which information? When? How?
• Considering the difference between push and pull communication
• SWOT analysis of beneficiaries: in order to better determine succeeding phases
• Sufficieny of communication channels (n(n-1)/2, where n is the number of beneficiaries); a total of 528 communication channels were identified for the Enghelab Square project with only 33 beneficiary groups.
• Determining methods of notification based on beneficiaries: sending letters, declarations, bulletins, pamphlets, CDs, email, individual or group text messages, BTS messages, installment of stands, writing on textile panels, using local/regional media, posting in newspapers, sending audio and visual texts, telephone calls, use of electronic billboards, case reports, meetings, conferences, camps, making movies and video clips, T.V and radio ads.
• Defining suitable approaches to education based on the nature of beneficiaries: use of educational texts, speeches, visits, stories, poems, films, theater plays, photographs and slideshows, debate panels, intellectual initiatives, Q&A panels, role playing.
• Designing weblogs for the project: an introduction into the prospective interventions and future executive plans, statement of problems and deficiencies, asking for the opinion of involved beneficiaries, education and notification of executive programs.
• Election of representatives among beneficiaries: to participate in meetings relating to the operation of the project and various stages of intervention.
• Providing checklists for all stages of the effective communication system

Execution frequency system: incorporates various plans for avoiding, adjusting, and minimizing negative outcomes and effects of interventions.

Plans for avoiding/adjusting negative outcomes and effects of intervention
Row Avoidance/adjustment program Legal documentation Custodian Legal documentation of custodian Partner Legal documentation of partners Checklist = detailed description
Phases of execution: (1,2,3 ...)

Intelligent monitoring system: includes compensation plans and other measures for surveillance and monitoring of results of intervening actions based on time and theme.

Compensation plans of intervening actions
Row Compensation plan Legal documentation Custodian Legal documentation of custodian Partners Legal documentation of partners Checklist = detailed description
Phases of execution: (1,2,3 ...)
1 Reconstruction of sidewalks and safety measures for feeble pedestrians and the disabled Second 5-year operational plan of Tehran Municipality, section 4: civilian-oriented transportation system: articles 7 and 8, clause A, B, C Tehran Beautification Organization of the 6th and 11th District Offices Statement of obligations

Project executive, secretaries of the 6 Shorayaris of the region Statement of obligations
1. holding executive meetings with Tehran Beautification Organization offices of the 6th and 11th districts, secretaries of the 6th Shorayaris of the region, 3 representatives from the Association for the Visually-Impaired, SCI (spinal cord injury) patients, and Hearing Impaired, and 2 representative bodies of the beneficiaries, in order to identify all aspects of the intervening actions and effective planning for implementation using both domestic and foreign experiences
2...

Monitoring group: comprised of a 2 or 3 beneficiary members for the daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal, semi-annual, and annual monitoring of changes in outcomes and effects during the course of the project.
• Determining implementation steps of intervening actions: using precedence diagramming method (PDF), showing 4 types of correlation between pre-requisites and post-requisites of actions: FS, FF, SS, SF
• FS: finish-to-start: pre-requisite actions must finish before post-requisite actions begin
• FF: finish-to-finish: pre-requisite actions must finish before post-requisite actions finish
• SS: start-to-start: pre-requisite actions must start before post-requisite actions can start
• SF: start-to-finish: pre-requisite actions must start before post-requisite actions finish

Row Intervention FS FF SS SF
1 Assemblage of illegally parked motorcycles in sidewalks
2 Relocation of 3 stations in the E sector
3 Driving back and assembling vehicles belonging to business owners from sidewalk 1. 1.
4 Gathering street vendors 1.3. 1.3.
5 Collection of screamers and distributors of leaflets and flyers 1.3.4. 1.3.4.
6 تعريض پياده‌روها
Expansion of sidewalks 1.2.3.4.5. 1.2.3.4.5.
7 Vegetation 1.2.6. 1.2.6. 2.6.
8 Reconstruction of sidewalks and safety measures for feeble pedestrians and the disabled 1.2.13.4.5.6.7. 1.2.3.4.5.6.7. 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.
9 Controlling libertine advertisements on street walls and doors 1.2.3.4.5. 1.2.3.4.5.
10 Control and reduction of daily produced waste from advertisements 1.3.4.5.8.9. 1.2.3.4.5.8.9.
11 Establishing visual management
12 Codifying standards for urban facades and landscapes 11. 11. 11.
13 Encouraging a specialist view towards urban ornamentation 11.12. 11.12. 11.12.
14 Determining rules and regulations for contracting and outsourcing of works for urban landscape procedures
11.12. 11.12. 11.12.
15 Compiling guidelines for maintaining project results
16 Compiling guidelines on how to treat historic buildings
17 Adjusting regulations for the installment of billboards 11.12.
18 Instructions for the maintenance of shuttered doors 11.12.
19 Guidelines for the operation of kiosks 11.12.
20 Standards for workshop operations 11.12. 11.12. 11.12.
21 Standards and regulations for optimal usage of energy
22 Resolving legal inadequacies 11.12. 11.12. 11.12.
23 Promoting ornamentation and prioritizing the private sector 11.12.13.14. 11.12.13.14. 11.12.22
24 Culturalization and promotion of culture 11.
25 Utilizing novel methods of notification 11.
26 Use of effective incentives 11.
27 Introducing an “Urban Ornamentation Day” and implementing the project on this day 11.
28 Designing social hangouts 11.
29 Installing several water fountains 11.
30 Removing Enghal Square bridge 11.
31 Changing managers in partner institutions in the case of major issues

32 Using inter-organizational capacities to the fullest 11.22.
33 Utilization of the 6 Shorayaris in the regions 11.
34 Training beneficiaries: beautification of the 6th and 11th district 11. 11. 11.
35 Preparing and training public beneficiaries 11. 11. 11.
36 Creating an intelligent monitoring network 11. 11. 11.
37 Preventing undesirable elements not considered in the project from remaining undesired 11.
38 Preventing damages to valuable billboards 11.
39 Preventing damages to valuable doors 11.
40 Preventing the development of visual pollution along with proper illumination of the area 11.
41 Terminating the project

Timing of interventions:
Row Intervention Number of days required for the implementation of each stage of intervention in days Total explanation
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6 Stage 7 Stage 8 Stage 9 Stage 10 Stage 11 Stage 12 Stage 13 Stage 14
1 Assemblage of illegally parked motorcycles in sidewalks 5 10 10 10 20 - - - 20 - 30 56 M M 161
2 Relocation of 3 stations in the E sector 10 10 20 20 M 60
3 Driving back and assembling vehicles belonging to business owners from sidewalk 10 10 20 30 - M M M 70
4 Gathering street vendors 7 10 20 M 30 M M 67
5 Collection of screamers and distributors of leaflets and flyers 10 20 30 M 60 M 30+ M M 150
6 Expansion of sidewalks 10 60 30 - M 100
7 Vegetation 20 10 - M 30
8 Reconstruction of sidewalks and safety measures for feeble pedestrians and the disabled 10 56 - - M 66
9 Controlling libertine advertisements on street walls and doors 10 30 30 30 M M 60 M M 180
10 Control and reduction of daily produced waste from advertisements 10 30 60 30 30 20 M M 60 M M M 250
11 Establishing visual management - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
12 Codifying standards for urban facades and landscapes 10 90 60 30 45 30 M 265
13 Encouraging a specialist view towards urban ornamentation 20 30 +M 20 70
14 Determining rules and regulations for contracting and outsourcing of works for urban landscape procedures
10 60 30 100
15 Compiling guidelines for maintaining project results 10 30 30 M 70
16 Compiling guidelines on how to treat historic buildings 20 30 60 90 M 200
17 Adjusting regulations for the installment of billboards 15 78 45 M 130
18 Instructions for the maintenance of shuttered doors 10 30 30 M M M 170
19 Guidelines for the operation of kiosks 15 45 30 M M M 90
20 Standards for workshop operations 20 60 45 M 125
21 Standards and regulations for optimal usage of energy 15 40 30 M 85
22 Resolving legal inadequacies 20 75 - 95
23 Promoting ornamentation and prioritizing the private sector - - - -
24 Culturalization and promotion of culture 10 30 30 M M M M 70
25 Utilizing novel methods of notification 20 90 45 - M M 155
26 Use of effective incentives 10 30 45 Mم M 85
27 Introducing an “Urban Ornamentation Day” and implementing the project on this day 10 30 40 30 M - M 110
28 Designing social hangouts 25 50 - - - 35 45 M 155
29 Installing several water fountains 25 30 60 M M 115
30 Removing Enghal Square bridge - - - - 90 90
31 Changing managers in partner institutions in the case of major issues
30 M M 30
32 Using inter-organizational capacities to the fullest M 30 30 60
33 Utilization of the 6 Shorayaris in the regions 15 30+M 45
34 Training beneficiaries: beautification of the 6th and 11th district 15 30 45+M M 90
35 Preparing and training public beneficiaries 15 30 45+M M 90
36 Creating an intelligent monitoring network 20 M M M M M M M 20
37 Preventing undesirable elements not considered in the project from remaining undesired 20 30 45 M M 95
38 Preventing damages to valuable billboards 15 30 40 - - 40 30 M M 155
39 Preventing damages to valuable doors 15 30 40 - - 40 30 M M 155
40 Preventing the development of visual pollution along with proper illumination of the area 20 45 M 65
41 Terminating the project - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total number of days required for implementation of interventions without overlap 4019

Temporal overlap in interventions

Row Topic Number Total number of required days without overlap Overlap with implementation of ... per month Required days
1 Holding expert/official meetings 45 697 8 sessions (2 per week) 181-23+158
2 تدوین دستورالعمل‌ها و تعیین ضوابط
Codification of guidelines and regulations 35 1650 2 cases (one every 15 days) 141-18+123
3 Notification 36 1120 2 cases (one every 15 days) 144-18+126
4 Technical operations 35 1450 1 case 280-35+245
Total amount of time required for all interventions = 280 days (9 months and 10 days)

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